Cognitive Science I'm Chewing On

The brain sciences are unique in their brazen attempt to understand experience, the inherently whole, taking on the paradox of looking at the light that we look with. I think this makes us special, us space invaders, us brain dividers. Makes us a philosophical bunch, with a pretty big toolbelt, and real responsibility. Below is a kind of manifesto for why we stand out, how I would like to teach about it at the MIT Media Lab, and what we should all do about it.

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# An Irreducibility Initiative, Convening, Conceiving

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**Questions**

What are the ties between reductionism--as a disengagement with experience, with culture and context, with emergent effects--and a failure to prioritize self awareness in science and tech at the level of both producer and what is produced? What is an academics and larger critical STEM, that generates, for instance, an AI ecosystem which refuses to build a backbone for Cambridge Analytica? If indeed "the cultural layer is the layer with the most potential for a fundamental correction away from the self-destructive path that we are currently on," but STEM are tied to capitalism and often shun cultural production, where do we begin? How can STEM become self aware through humility, engagement with the arts, perspective taking--and in turn engender ripple effects of augmented awareness?

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**Summary**

Science and tech are steamrolling ahead and it's dangerous. Ethics, context and critique are all too often missing. A dose of humility would be a dose of sanity--specifically humility about the idea that everything is reducible and controllable, solvable at breakneck speed and applicable context-agnostic, that control and quantification represent universal progress, that humanity is for the humanities. The cognitive sciences present a unique antidote, because they are fundamentally the study of construction of emergent experience from mechanism, automatically entailing participant-observation and intuition, a 1st + 3rd person science about (and by) human experience experiencers. Brain science potentiates a bridge between the current scientific trend of reduce/compute and the other aim: of engaging the irreducibility and beauty and movement of complex adaptive human systems, of developing a sentiment for a dynamic thing in context, of studying at all Marr's levels of analysis. I'm reminded of Jane Goodall, ridiculed for refusing to number her chimps and name them instead, later praised for seeing their humanity when others couldn't.

This bridge has many paths, many beams: the re-linking of description of mechanism with descriptions of self, the integration of the arts into science not as aesthetics but as ontologies exalting intuition and experience, the primacy of ethics in tool building, and the redefinition of progress within a world not built to sustain exponential scale and speed and smoke and sulfur. The reductionist project is tied tightly with capitalist incentive--break down to bits and you can control, capitalize. The introduction of perspectives, artistic or philosophical or other, with some distance from and criticality of the current structure and speed of production may as yet save us from ourselves, sold and selling to the exponential end. Better understanding of the layered human system will help us better build systems in which humans interact and systems with which humans interact. A linking of the scientific study of experience with the artistic generation of experience will yield a redemptive respect for irreducibility. The respect for the uncontrollable that composes each of us is, in the face of reductionism, a revolutionary self-respect.

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## **Irreducibility Initiative**: **Science as Self-Awareness**

Science of the cell and soma must reintegrate with a science of the self. Practice of STEM has become, somehow, too practical, where soft is a slur, humanity is for humanities and progress is the purpose. Yet in a whirlwind of progress (or at least forward motion), where we are at our most powerful is where we most need the voice of our critic and conscience and context. The aim to break down to bits, the reductionist imperative, is tied intimately to the desire to control, to capitalize upon, to quantify. The respect for the uncontrollable that composes each of us is then a revolutionary self-respect.

The cognitive sciences, as the objective study of subjective experience, both 'me' mind and 'it' brain, form a natural meeting point between this practicality and philosophy. Lionized as the last bastion of philosophy in action in an academy and society which worships tools and solutions and speed and scale, aiming to understand, explore, experience, intervene--each with equal weight. There has been a reductionist brain science, a Skinnerian behaviorism, which collapsed under its own rigid weight with chinks cut by intuition: and as such cognitive science remains a near oxymoronic 3rd person study of 1st person experience that makes inescapably obvious the necessity of soft smarts. Brain science can create a lightning rod of linkages between projects of reductionism and emergentism, generalist and specialist, a STEM to STEAM that centers on a science which is by definition universal, a science of the self.

Yet in their current instantiation the cognitive sciences are trending towards a microcosm of the larger slide towards a reductionist, utilitarian higher education, a capitalized project with tacit assumption that more is more, more scale, more progress, more speed, a conception then of the self as tamable, computable, a definition of intelligence as computational power, of control as progress and universal good, a divorce between the creation of tools and the ethics entailed, a disregard for sentiment, sense, intuition as guiding principles in the experience of examining. The move is not wholesale and the reasons are myriad, from funding models to the predictability of pendulums, but we can do better.

The study of the brain must be our example of modern self examination, a science of participant-observers with ethical imperatives, respect for many notions of knowing and the complications and complicity of sight with tool and context. This involves a re-integration with the arts, a recognition of parallels between the study of experience and the generation of experience, an acceptance and cautious respect for intelligences untamable, artificial and organic, of the pursuit of the irreducible beautiful exalting in ideas for ideas sake. In the tradition of MIT, of David Marr, of Marvin Minsky, of CAVS, the Media Lab can be an exemplar of a science which is as irreducible as the society it aims to apply to. In the tradition of Jane Goodall who refused to number her chimps, who named them and saw their humanity only once she stood up and framed it and spoke it so. Participant design begins with participant observation, and participant observation begins with a propaganda of the deed: a reframing of the project of objective observation as participatory, ethically entailed, artistically alive, complicit, complex and adaptive.

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**A Class Could TEACH About**

There are a few things really. Each could be a class.

* **What the science of awareness is, and the practice of awareness is, in tandem.**

* Cognition, metacognition, and the lenses science and tech and art provide with which to see ourselves.

* Embodied cognition, enactive cognition, and how they tie into meditative practices.

* Storytelling as medicine, the central non-duality of biology, enactive and extended and embodied cognition, the unconscious influence on emotional, evaluative, perceptual and motivational selves...

* Quantification of awareness in the neurosciences and limitations of quantification

* How to study what is irreducible: to understand, not to control, not to measure

* **How science can engage with the humanities in terms of ethics**

* Futuring, speculative science, feeling.

* Protocols for humble science

* Citizen Science

* Humanist science engagement with policy examples today--Harvard's *Center for Law Brain and Behavior*, for example

* How the arts can shape not just aesthetics, but ontologies.

* Criticality, conscience, context

* Past projects intertwining the ontologies of art and science

* **What science can tell us about ourselves, how we experience and see, and how art can engage in that dialogue.**

* Experimental phenomenology and epistemic arts.

* Different kinds of intelligences, as defined by AI, art and science

* Studying common sense and soft intelligence

* The fear of the future, the integration of the past

* Self-examination as inherently valuable--

* Cog sci is the study of how the brain generates experience, and successful global human interaction is based on a real understanding of how humans process bias, insight, emotion.

***Scientific discovery consists in the interpretation for our own convenience of a system of existence which has been made with no eye to our convenience at all.-- Norbert Weiner***

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**A Negative Active Manifesto**

Neuroscience will **NOT** be a science of the self while it is understood only in the ivory tower

* So we build better tools for quantified self (in-ear EEG)

* And we build treatments which patients can self administer without toxicity (SZ bracelet and imagery rehearsal therapy)

* And we do a better job of communicating brain science (Blank Canvas)

* And we integrate it into art contexts where philosophy is not taboo (Cocoon, Robot Arm Tree/Bench Vibration/The Digital Spa)

* So we extend possibilities for **participant observation** in the sciences

Neuroscience will **NOT** be a science of the self while its mission remains reductionist and utilitarian

* So we examine the irreducible (Meditation, Gabrieli + Poetry)

* So we re-examine the reduced in artistic contexts where sensual/nuance is permitted (The Digital Spa)

* So we build intersectional communities fluent in neuroscience and X (The Piene Studio, Consciousness Hacking)

Neuroscience will **NOT** be a science of the self while its aims are for laboratories by laboratories

* So we build tools for DIY brain science (In-Ear EEG, Fluid BCI, Dormio, SZ Anchor)

* So we compact and scale up interventions that are effective in lab for ecological validity (SZ Anchor)

* So we tie understanding of neuroscience into the criminal justice and educational and political systems (CLBB, PVD Talks)

* So we tie understanding of unorthodox/non-academic communities into neuroscience (Consciousness Hacking, Jung, Stickgold)

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**There is nothing in a caterpillar that tells you it's going to be a butterfly.-- Buckminster Fuller**

White Owl Flies Into and Out of the Field

Coming down out of the freezing sky
with its depths of light,
like an angel, or a Buddha with wings,
it was beautiful, and accurate,
striking the snow and whatever was there
with a force that left the imprint
of the tips of its wings — five feet apart —
and the grabbing thrust of its feet,
and the indentation of what had been running
through the white valleys of the snow —
and then it rose, gracefully,
and flew back to the frozen marshes
to lurk there, like a little lighthouse,
in the blue shadows —
so I thought:
maybe death isn’t darkness, after all,
but so much light wrapping itself around us —

as soft as feathers —
that we are instantly weary of looking, and looking,
and shut our eyes, not without amazement,
and let ourselves be carried,
as through the translucence of mica,
to the river that is without the least dapple or shadow,
that is nothing but light — scalding, aortal light —
in which we are washed and washed
out of our bones.

Art Is

A piece of writing reflecting on a beautiful class, the Vision in Art and Neuroscience course taught last semester here. A union:

I loved this class. It made me simultaneously hopeful about art worlds/neuro worlds/community building. I am quite sad if it is over. Here are some of the reasons why I hope it is not. This  won't be edited, so bear with me. I'm writing on the train home. Here are my musings (my muses! my mucus!)  


* The union of the study of experience with the creation of experience. If I do not study myself, who can truly study me? If I only study myself, what am I? And if not now, when? 

* I will refer to the duties called upon us chickens this semester as Subject Object Work: Heartening Art Transplants (S.O.W.H.A.T)
* The machine that is higher education is not lacking in energy, subject, structure or impetus. It is lacking in subjectivity, sentiment, selfhood and sensuality.  
* As academia has become mechanized, financialized, capitalized, as it has concentrated the concept and corpus of the intellectual, it has made central the idea of the mechanical corpus and the mechanical intellect. We are what we eat, and so participation in an intellectual factory has made us introspect on self-as-factory. 

* One amongst the myriad responsibilities of arts and the artist is to engage with instability, and in turn self-examination (painful, political, personal, petty, *Paideia*). Where there is structure there is dualism, blindness, assured ignorance and stasis. The S.O.W.H.A.T. work responds to this call in two fundamental ways:
    * 1. There are no objective observers in brain science, only participant-observers studying brains with brains. Thus good exploration involves radical unification of the 1st and 3rd person, of subjective and objective forms of understanding. Demonstrate the necessity for art in research paradigms that hope to approach qualia, and this unification becomes undeniable. The explicit unification in the art-science undertaken throughout our semester underscores a larger, necessary complication of objectivity in STEM academia. Appeals to objectivity are all too often appeals to authority, masquerading, nepotistic numerology. In the end, the medium is the message, and there are no neutral numbers. Exposing subjectivity is thus exposing structure, becoming the subject, not object, of an ongoing conversation around experience and knowledge-creation.
    * 2. Seeing is believing, core immediate known truth about world. But seeing, too, is constructing. Believing, then, is constructing. The ability of good experiential neuroscience to expose instability of sight is a great shaking of the very foundation of lived experience. It is all built. 

* A victory for S.O.W.H.A.T is thus a victory for two non-dualist projects: in complicating neuroscience, the ultimate in approved academic self-reflection, as less than/more than/ objective, we free the viewer to engage in sensual self-examination and we free the university to guiltless inculcation of non-dualist doubt and undertaking of the duties of soft ontologies. 

* We are all experiencers, each with unique insight into experience.This is vitally different than expertise in chemistry, say, or physics, where there is a striving for 3rd person objectivity and thus an implicit objective expertise as one ascend the asymptotic academic totem pole. A comprehensive approach to understanding the science of the mind necessitates eschewing the elitism and silos that split neuroscience off from engineering, philosophy, design and art. The projects at the experimental fringe of neuroscience are thus beacons for the scientists who are open to any and all answers and artists interested bridging spectacle and substance. The support of phenomenology and support of art-phenomena-makers is beacon building. 

* The illumination of the fundamentally constructive nature of perception is not apolitical, not ivory laboratory alone. It is in the tradition of artists who give viewers reasons, and powerful permission, to take control of the gist and guidelines which shape their world. S.O.W.H.A.T. is liberating light.

* Light is special. Light is slippery. Slipping is necessary. Slip  is slop. Slop is food. Food is growth.  

* For me, fundamentally, scholarship is not practical. Scholarship is leisure. Scholarship is a space to ask questions that are not tied to vocation, survival, production. Where else can we study what is truly fundamental--ontology, phenomenology, place in person and place in world? A loss of playful scholarship is a loss of leisure. Art, as serious play, is an antidote to be taken lightly and at great length. 


* No to gee-whiz art! No to illustrated science. Pseudo-everything. Everything is everything. Yes to trash. Yes to recycling. 


* Thank you. 

An End to Venn

I’m all for insisting on intersectionality. But there are multiple ways to go about integrating ideas: some redundant, some genuinely translational, some that lead to mutual growth. 

 

Reflect for a moment on the oft-used designer’s tool, the Venn Diagram. Two thematic areas find common ground at their respective edges. Fringe focus areas bring together the necessary insider-outsiders: those thinkers with the fluency to engage serious classical scholars in their fields but with a personal pull towards the edges, an urge to step outside of their own fluency and engage with new vocabularies and sets of expertise. They meet each other at the edges. An artist exploring eye gaze and a neuroscientists exploring theory of mind realize they’re circling the same drain, and decide to slip in together.

This sort of thinking can empower fringe thinkers, provide them with collaborators and interlocutors. But the job of a provocateur, a bricoloeur, an edge-thinker, can’t end in overlapping space. The Venn Diagram suggests the final goal of a collaboration is to agree on ideas already within each other’s purview, to validate one another’s vocabulary.

I’d like to live instead within a pyramidal model for intersectional work. The issue in interdisciplinary collaboration is one of making meeting points based not only on breadth (fringe intersections) but depth. Where one discipline gets deeply niche, becomes atomized in gazing at atoms, it suddenly meets another at its broadest, its impetus and inquiry, and begins to ask new questions. The two form the foundation for new inquiry built on top of their collaboration: where broad meets niche, where fringe meets focus, where answers meet questions, novel work begins.

This is not working in overlapping territory. It is entering new space together. It is not quibbling over jargon but opening up space without previous owners. Building layers of foundation so we are allowed distance when we are too focused to see our collaborators, and allowing focus when we are too broad to see our opportunities.

from venn

from venn

to pyramidal

to pyramidal

Inscribed Disciplinary Deconstruction

It is, somewhat ironically, an often echoed worry that media offers an echo chamber for all of us today. Facebook algorithms sort media content on your feed by likelihood of garnering a click—so people see the things they already agree with—and sort friends higher than media content—so content is filtered through a self-selecting social circle, not journalists. Curated media often fails to push people outside of their ideological comfort zones to encounter other ways of approaching the world, polarization follows. But people not only curate content, they curate models of thinking, encountering or avoiding an expansion of a lens on the world.

The scientific world espouses, of course, science thinking. And it’s a world where expertise is rewarded: in grants, promotions, accolades etc. And expertise is, by it’s nature, exclusive. Experts are myopic. They are peer reviewed. Look at Steven Pinker’s writing on science lingo to understand why there are actual incentives for writing inaccessible science. Think of how relevant genetics is to you, and how inappropriately intimidating it is to approach the science of the stuff that makes you up. Think of the same with philosophy, neuroscience—concepts that form your core rendered irrelevant by expertise. Like so many spaces, the scientific worldview can become an exclusive, stuffy silo.

In my mind none of these siloes split or bubbles burst without some show of proof, an example of an object or happening that exists in between or outside of the boundaries you preach opening.

So you build amazing projects. Projects that couldn’t come from just one world, that cut across boundaries of culture, geography, discipline. See Margaret Livingstone use the neuroscience of human vision to explain Mona Lisa’s smile here. It’s an example of science taking seriously another discipline, opening up vocabularies and tools for a deeper reading of overlapping space with art. And there is much work to be done to expose and expand overlapping areas of art and science. But I think the integration of disciplines must be taken further than exploring overlapping space.

See Neri Oxman build a fully functional digestive system in a fashionable futuristic dress. This project is not about overlapping space between fashion and biology, not about art and science sharing space. It’s about the two coming together to create something completely new, something an expert in either could not create alone.

Examples from my own ‘making’ process are informative. I did a piece titled Small Beauty. I was curious about intimacy in detail—I’d had my cheek pulled, back slapped, belly patted by a Jewish grandmother for so much of my childhood and wanted to explore both this fine line between care/violence and the amazing differences in everyday experience between micro and macro scale.

And I’m proud of that image. But it simply takes an 1000fps imaging tool from a Physics lab and repurposes it for art. It is interdisciplinary, rather than anti-disciplinary, to borrow a term from MIT’s Media Lab. It finds common ground, rather than letting two disciplines rise together to new ground.

A better example of what I hope for is this project. Using some robotics, extending the myth and science of divining rods, and open to interruption and improvisation, I created a strange situation in which people could encounter their own subconscious through an interaction with a mechanized tree. Nobody had any way of accessing this archetypal ‘tree’ concept before engaging with this project. It sits neither in siloes of art or science, and takes people to a space that is an existential ‘in-between’.

Breeding a culture of curiosity is breeding a culture of diversity. It begins with ‘Inspiration at the Intersection’ between disciplines. Building projects that function as lightning rods to integrate and electrify.

And it’s not just to inspire people to create cool stuff. It’s because it often takes an outsider’s eye to see complex systems that experts mired in one niche fail to notice. Incredible work happens when newcomers look with fresh eyes at old problems, when teams are comprised of as many disciplines as there are directions to take a challenge.

This is why Proust revealed the fallibility of memory centuries before neuroscientists. This is why data scientists are inviting designers in to point out new connections in complex systems and help tell the stories in systemic connections. This is why education policymakers are inviting neuroscientists into their offices and vice versa, working on amazing science based policy work. This is why metaphor is often so useful in mathematics, why phase transitions in matter are often created by the same math that differentiates levels of complexity from neurons→mind, from city→culture.

And creating spaces where disciplinary outsiders feel welcome to provide insights and inspiration begins with flinging the doors wide and recognizing that an expert may be the wrong one for the task at times. I’m excited about citizen science. I’m excited that the MIT Media Lab is anti rather than interdisciplinary, learning without boundaries, not breeding boundaries into people again to push against them. I’m excited about educational models that don’t just break down disciplinary boundaries, but refuse to introduce them in the first place. I’m excited about creating a spark, and not fearing a fire.

Step 1 is accessibility. If it’s tech, make like littleBits or Makey Makey and take advantage of how powerful play can be as an opener. If it’s Science, maybe write like Joi Ito’s Journal of Design and Science—cut peer review out of the equation and create a conversation where, since nobody could possibly be such a broad expert, everyone is welcome. If it’s content, put it online, open, free. I see a world rising where expertise is democratized by work like this and it’s hugely exciting.

My two cents, my two projects I’m working on at the moment, are this and this. Hopefully you all see how they contribute to this rising tide. Please reach out and engage.

Adam Horowitz

Other references:

Not an intersection. An otherwise unachievable shared space. 

Not an intersection. An otherwise unachievable shared space. 

Mad and Civilized

Often the creative process involves singular amounts of discipline: Mary Oliver walking the same path in the woods a hundred times, Yayoi Kusama committing to explore polka dots for 4 decades, Jackson Pollock’s apparently random ‘action paintings’ produced by committed process repetition. There is, to pinch an oft-applied aphorism, “method to the madness”. This seems to complicate the cultural icon of the scatter-brained, even ‘insane’ artist. Perhaps a little complication is in order.

 

It is worth considering why the word ‘madness’ enters into common parlance regarding creativity. Why the Ancient Greeks refer to an occult daimon driving their creative process, why performance artists often refer to out-of-body experiences, why William Blake claimed his poetry was ‘dictated to him’.

 

It would seem, and modern neuroscience affords hints as to why, that moments of creative brilliance involve the introduction of madness to the method, rather than the other way around. Dr. Rex Jung’s work focuses on transient hypofrontality in the brain--in short, the hypothesis that creativity is a sudden loss of executive function, a passing deactivation of attentional supervision: A passing entrance into a state of executive dysfunction, which would, if not transient, likely be diagnosed as dis-order per the DSM (EFD, ADD, etc). Captured within this transient hypofrontality is the medial prefrontal cortex, locus of the default mode network, thought to play a key role in ego-related thought; perhaps here is the root of the out-of-ego experience Blake mentions above.

 

Point being, our brain-states are malleable, we are composed of many selves, and the creative spark appears to be in the transition between ‘madness’ and method. This hypofrontality allows for intense, novel associations, ones that would be otherwise restricted by the repetition of previous cognitive pathways (same question→ same answer) and the nearly automatic surveillance and redirection of our cognition straying from them. Its transience, in turn, allows for effective attentional orienteering necessary to grab hold of valuable novel associations and mold them into plans of action.

 

The creative process internally involves allowing free association and then backing away from these momentary lapses of supervision to pull out the best new connections, so what are its external parallels? What can we learn from understanding the mechanisms of creativity to ‘create creativity’? What sort of space would work like a creative brain? Structures, physical and organizational, that permit and promote cross-pollination and the marriage of dis/organization. Creativity across scales, as is were, rhizomes with depth. Paired with the powerful realization that we are all creatives on a spectrum, containing both madness and method, this concept calls for a new, anti-disciplinary approach to creative production across industries, and invites a new wave of as-yet contained creatives to enter the fray.


A panel discussion on this topic would begin with recent contributions from neuroscience to our understanding of creativity, implications for how and whether to change spaces we work in accordingly, successful projects that exist across disciplines and methods, and, importantly, the technologies and tools that allow for maximal creative output building on the wisdom gained from peering into artistic and scientific inter/anti-disciplinary practice.

Mythmakers

BILL MOYERS: I think of a … remember that wonderful pygmy legend of the little boy who finds the song of the most beautiful … the bird of the most beautiful song in the forest?

JOSEPH CAMPBELL: And he brings it home, doesn’t he? And he asks his father to bring food for the bird, and the father doesn’t want to feed only a bird. And one time the father kills the bird, and when he killed the bird, he killed his own life, and he died.

BILL MOYERS: That’s it. And the legend says, the man killed the bird, and with the bird he killed the song, and with the song himself. Isn’t that a story about what happens when human beings destroy their environment, destroy their world, destroy nature and the revelation of nature?

JOSEPH CAMPBELL: Destroy their own nature.

BILL MOYERS: Human nature, too. They kill the song.

JOSEPH CAMPBELL: They kill the song.

BILL MOYERS: And isn’t mythology the story of the song?

JOSEPH CAMPBELL: Mythology is the song. It’s the flight of the imagination, inspired by the energies of the body and in its life.

BILL MOYERS: What happened as human beings turned from the hunting of animals to the planting of seeds? What happened to the mythic imagination?

JOSEPH CAMPBELL: Well, I try to think of it this way. An animal, as I think I’ve said before, is sort of a total entity, and when you kill that animal, that animal is dead. But when you cut down a plant, new sprouts come out. Pruning is, you know, helpful to a plant. Also in forests where a good deal of the origination of myth is to be recognized, out of rock comes life, even in these forests here, of the beautiful redwoods. I was in a wonderful forest right near Mendocino, and there are some great, great stumps from enormous trees that were cut down some decades and decades ago. And out of them are coming these bright new little children who are part of the same plant. So there’s a sense of death as not death somehow, that death is required for new fresh life and so on. And the individual isn’t quite an individual, he is a member of a plant. Jesus uses the term, you know, where he says, “I am the vine and you are the branches.” That vineyard idea is a totally different one from the separate entity of the animal.